The research to do the essay
Contrary to what is believed, every text needs a previous investigation that serves as a starting point and legitimization of the exposed information. Before writing a word, we suggest establishing the possible subtopics of the essay. This task consists in asking us research questions, all related to the subject in question. Following our example, some questions would be:
- What are the advances of artificial intelligence in war weapons?
- What are the latest generation of war weapons?
- What incidents has caused the use of artificial intelligence?
- What organisms regulate the development of artificial intelligence?
As we can see, the above are just some of the dozens of questions we can ask ourselves. From this, we can organize the sub-themes following the logical structure chosen above. Finally, we can start documentary research in libraries, specialized magazines and websites with credibility.
The creation of the dotted script or script
The dotted script is the set of themes and sub-themes of our essay, ordered in a coherent way according to a logical structure. We consider that the creation of a correct writing script guarantees success to the text. Therefore, we recommend to dedicate the necessary time to its preparation. Thus, the creation of the script consists of translating the results of the research into a thematic index. To exemplify it, let’s see the following list:
- Artificial intelligence and war weapons
- Advance of military engineering
- Advance of the engineer in artificial intelligence
Incidents with weapons and artificial intelligence
- case number 1
- case number 2
Risks of artificial intelligence in war weapons
- direct risks
- indirect risks
As we can see, the script orders in a summary all the topics to be dealt with in the text. Put another way, it is a guide that serves to not leave points untouched. In addition, this summary allows us to advance according to the logical structure. For this reason, we strongly recommend to elaborate meticulously. Indeed, it is easier to make corrections to the script than to the written text. So it is advisable to invest efforts and work conscientiously all the previous stages. In conclusion, the dotted script is the skeleton of the text and the result of a correct prewriting stage.
Writing: second stage of the essay guide
The writing phase consists of the actual writing process, which must be done following the guidelines of the dotted script. To make the work easier, we suggest dividing the text into sections. In turn, each section should pay special attention to the construction of the paragraphs. Likewise, the use of textual markers or logical connection words is emphasized. Finally, we emphasize that the writing stage aims to capture all ideas. In no way the trial is finished at the end of this phase, corrections will be necessary.
The introduction in the trial
The introduction is the initial section of an essay whose purpose is to present the panorama of the discussion and the position of the author. We consider that an introduction must fulfill three functions. The first is to awaken interest in the reader, for which you can resort to some anecdote. The second function is to raise the context of the discussion, that is, the framework of the topic. The third task consists of stating the thesis of the essay, which is the ultimate purpose of the introduction. Now, many writers choose to write the introduction at the end. This preference is justified because after creating the essay it is easier to make an introductory synthesis. For our part, we consider that an essay with a logical structure allows and requires stating the thesis from the beginning. In other words, we recommend writing the introduction at the beginning.
The use of subtopics and subtitles
An academic essay should be clear, structured and coherent, so it is of vital importance to resort to the use of subtopics. Paying attention to this recommendation guarantees correspondence with the script. So it is advisable to convert each of the subtopics of the writing script into a section. Inclusive, in extensive works the sub-themes come to form whole chapters. For creative purposes, the name of the subtopic can be changed to something more attractive. However, the thematic axis must be the same. Otherwise, the text will move away from planning and eventually lose its purpose.
The paragraph and its construction
The paragraph is a set of sentences in which an idea is developed, has structure and full meaning. The paragraph is considered the smallest textual unit. That is, the text is made up of other microtexts or paragraphs. In terms of composition, a paragraph consists of a thematic idea, complementary or development ideas and an idea of conclusion. As you can see it is an introduction, development and conclusion. Likewise, the paragraph has an internal logical structure that must respond to the general logical composition of the writing. In addition, the paragraphs are grouped into different categories. There are comparison, cause and effect, enumeration and development. Therefore, it is suggested to use them based on the ideas, subtopics and themes of the essay.
The use of textual markers
The textual markers with logical transition words that are used in the text to articulate paragraphs and ideas. These lexical resources are also known as logical connectors, transition words or discourse markers. Some examples of textual markers are: however, now well, in contrast, therefore, so that, etc. Although we have all used these expressions once, their correct use is linked to logic. Thus, the markers of discourse are grouped into categories: cause, effect, opposition, introduction, sequence, repetition … Based on these resources we will be able to connect the different paragraphs and ideas exposed. We recommend using them to facilitate the understanding of the text.
The handling of appointments in the trial
In an essay, it is not necessary to resort to the constant use of quotations under specific forms, as is the case in formal investigations. An important part to keep in mind are the recommendations for the aforementioned. Due to the nature of the essay, it will be enough to quote the author within the same text. We refer to expressions such as: “according to the author …, from the point of view of the author …, for the author …” If we consider it necessary to specify the reference, then we use the footnotes. In this way the reading is not interrupted, but no relevant data is omitted. To close, the footnotes are useful for making comments that we can not include directly in the text.
The characteristics of the conclusion
The conclusion of the essay is the section in which we return to the thesis after the argument, it is not a simple synthesis. We have dedicated a section of this guide to the conclusion because this usually generates doubts. The first error that is committed in an essayistic conclusion is to summarize the arguments of the development. Another common error is not to enunciate a definitive thesis that is based on the arguments. Therefore, we emphasize three aspects.
Take up the thesis. In the conclusion, the initial position should be rescued, which was supported by arguments, and a definitive thesis should be enunciated.
Make use of the synthesis. With this term we do not mean to present a summary. We must expand our position with the help of the information presented in the development.
The forcefulness All the great literary works culminate with a great outcome. Therefore, the conclusion must possess sufficient strength to accompany the final thesis.
Bibliography and essay format
The bibliography is the presentation of all the sources consulted under a list ordered according to the conventions. For its part, the format is a series of criteria for the visual presentation of a text. We recommend including all the material that has been consulted, although its contribution is minimal. Sometimes a book only provides us with a paragraph of relevant information, which is sufficient for its annex. As a result, the number of references on the list will be greater and we will reveal an arduous investigation. However, we must avoid confusion: the bibliography does not serve to fill pages, its function is to corroborate the information.
Regarding the format, this depends on the style to which we refer. Among the most famous styles we find APA and MLA. The first of them has gained a lot of popularity because it gets a clear and practical structure. Nowadays, most scientific articles are produced in APA format. Consequently, we will expose some criteria of this style but it is recommended to consult the sixth edition of the APA manual.
Times New Roman typography to 12 points.
Line spacing with double space.
Layout in flag (aligned to the right without justification).
Margins of 3.5 (upper, lower, right and left).
Use of bold letters in subtitles.
Finally, we recommend using the APA style because it is the most used currently in the world of academies. In their defect, the different institutes count on an official format. Given the case, it will suffice to refer to this.